Measles Details

Measles :

Understand The - Symptoms, Causes, Tests & Treatment

Measles, or rubeola, is a viral infection of the respiratory system. Measles is a very contagious disease that can spread through contact with infected mucus and saliva. An infected person can release the infection into the air when they cough or sneeze.

The measles virus can live on surfaces for several hours. As the infected particles enter the air and settle on surfaces, anyone within close proximity can become infected. Drinking from an infected person’s glass, or sharing eating utensils with an infected person, increases your risk of infection.

Measles is a leading cause of death in children. Of the 114,900 global deaths related to measles in 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that most of the victims were under the age of 5.

Contact a doctor immediately if you suspect you have measles. If you have not received a measles vaccine and you come into contact with an infected person, visit your doctor to receive a measles vaccine within 72 hours of contact to prevent infection. You can also prevent an infection with a dose of immunoglobulin taken within six days of contact with an infected person.

Symptoms of measles generally appear within 14 days of exposure to the virus. Symptoms include :
  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Red eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • Muscle aches
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • White spots inside the mouth

A widespread skin rash is a classic sign of measles. A measles rash, which appears as red, itchy bumps, commonly develops on the head and slowly spreads to other parts of the body. This rash can last up to seven days and generally appears within the first three to five days of exposure to the virus.

What Causes Measles ?

Measles is caused by infection with the rubeola virus. The virus lives in the mucus of the nose and throat of an infected child or adult.

The disease is contagious for 4 days before the rash appears, and it continues to be contagious for about 4 to 5 days after.

Infection spreads through:

Physical contact with an infected person

Being near infected people if they cough or sneeze

Touching a surface that has infected droplets of mucus and then putting fingers into the mouth, or rubbing the nose or eyes

The virus remains active on an object for 2 hours.

Who is at risk for measles?

Measles primarily occurs in unvaccinated children. Some parents choose not to vaccinate their children for fear that vaccines will have adverse effects on their children. Most children and adults who receive a measles vaccine do not experience side effects.

Some parents believe that the measles vaccine can cause autism in children. However, numerous studies have proven that there is no link between autism and immunizations.

A vitamin A deficiency is also a risk factor for measles. Children with too little vitamin A in their diets have a higher risk of catching the virus.

Different Types Of Measles

There are two types of measles:

The rubeola virus causes "red measles," also known as "hard measles" or just "measles." Although most people recover without problems, rubeola can lead to pneumonia or inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).

How Measles is Diagnosed

Depending on the symptoms, the doctor may diagnose measles based on the patient's history and physical exam alone.
Physical Examine

Your doctor can confirm measles by examining your skin rash and checking for symptoms that are characteristic of the disease.

Such as white spots in the mouth, fever, cough, and sore throat.
Blood Tests

In questionable cases, the doctor can perform specialized blood tests to help with the diagnosis, but these tests usually are unnecessary.

Blood tests can also determine if a person is immune to measles.

Treatment Of Ringworm

Fungal diseases like ringworm are more difficult to treat than bacterial infection. That’s because fungus have more complicated cells which are more similar to our own. This makes it difficult to develop antifungal drugs that will kill the fungus, but do no harm to humans.

As a result, long-term topical and oral treatments are necessary, and they may not be 100 percent effective. Even after the infection appears to have disappeared, once ringworm appears once it is more likely to reoccur.

How to Get Rid of Ringworm
Ringworm can be treated topically with antifungal creams containing:
  • Clotrimazole (Cruex, Desenex, Lotrimin),
  • Miconazole (Monistat-Derm),
  • Ketoconazole (Nizoral), and
  • Terbinafine (Lamisil).
In severe or resistant infections on the scalp or nails, oral medications are necessary, such as:
  • Terbinafine,
  • Itraconazole (Sporanox), and
  • Fluconazole (Diflucan).

Who is at risk for ringworm?

  • Ringworm is a very common infection, and anyone can contract it. There are some people who are especially prone to infection, though. Anyone with a compromised immune system is both at a higher risk of being infected by ringworm and will have a harder time fighting off an infection. People who use public locker rooms, showers, swimming pools, and similar communal areas that are hot and humid are also at greater risk.
  • Athletes risk infection because they tend to sweat, and their athletic equipment sometimes traps moisture close to the skin. Athletes who make a lot of skin-to-skin contact, such as wrestlers and MMA fighters, are particularly prone to skin infections like ringworm. People who spend a lot of time with animals—farmers, veterinarians, and dog groomers, for example—are also at greater risk of making contact with the fungi that cause ringworm.
  • Anyone can develop ringworm. However, the infection is very common among children and people who own pet cats. Both cats and dogs can catch ringworm and then pass it on to humans who touch them. Signs to be aware of in pets include:
  • hairless patches of skin that appear circular
  • crusty or scaly patches
  • patches that may not be completely hairless but have brittle or broken hairs
  • opaque or whitish areas around the claws

Preventing ringworm

You can prevent ringworm by practicing healthy and hygienic behaviors. Many infections come from contact with animals and lack of proper hygiene. Tips to avoid ringworm include:

  • Wash your hands after interacting with an animal
  • Disinfect and clean pet living areas
  • Avoid people or animals with ringworm if you have a weakened immune system
  • Shower and shampoo your hair regularly
  • Wear shoes if showering in community areas
  • Avoid sharing personal items like clothing or hairbrushes with people who might have ringworm
  • Keep your feet clean and dry

Ringworm Prevention (Avoid)

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